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What makes a good camera phone? (Mobile phone photography part I)

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Good camera phone

Cell phone cameras keep getting better with higher resolutions and more high quality lenses for every scenario. In the large amount of manufacturer information, however, you can quickly lose track of which features are really crucial. We’ll show you the most important criteria for a good camera phone so that you can take the best possible phone photos.

This article is in a four-part series on cell phone photography. This first part is about the most important features that make a good camera phone. The second part covers great camera phones that will stand out from the crowd in 2021. Part 3 will take you into the world of photography and give you tips and tricks for more beautiful pictures. In the fourth part we show you the best ways how you can organize, edit and share your photos. Here you can find the links to the other parts of the series:

Part I: What Makes a Good Camera Phone?

Many criteria for good camera phones

It’s not that easy to choose the ideal smartphone these days. If there are special requirements for display, performance or camera, for example, you have to look carefully to see which mobile phone meets the requirements. If you are interested in a smartphone with a high-quality and versatile camera , you usually cannot avoid expensive devices . The manufacturers usually equip their flagships with the best lenses. There are a few aspects to consider here that are decisive for the quality of the camera.

Good camera phone

Different lenses for every scenario

Versatile wide-angle lens

For a few years now, manufacturers have been using several sensors in their camera systems. When looking for a good camera phone, you should pay attention to the different lenses. Usually the main sensor is a normal wide-angle lens with a high resolution and a low aperture to take beautiful photos in all everyday scenarios. Combined with image stabilization, good autofocus and night mode, beautiful pictures of any subject can be taken even in moving scenes and in the dark. In most situations you will use the main lens , which is why you should pay particular attention to high quality.

Many smartphones use sensors from Sony. Examples are the extremely popular IMX586 and IMX686 with 48 and 64 megapixels, which are found in some smartphones from Samsung, Xiaomi, OnePlus and others. In addition, manufacturers such as Sony, Nokia, OnePlus and Huawei work with well-known brands from professional photography such as Zeiss, Hasselblad and Leica to build perfectly coordinated lenses and lenses that complement the sensors perfectly.

Long-distance shots with the telephoto lens

One lens that has now become standard is the telesensor . It has an optical zoom and is used to bring distant lenses closer. Before, it was only possible to enlarge an image section with a smartphone using the lossy digital zoom. This is not a real zoom lens, as you can only switch back and forth between the various sensors with fixed focal lengths . The telephoto lens has a longer focal length than the other sensors – usually over 50 mm. The lens is ideal for traveling and for portraits.

Some premium smartphones use so-called periscope telephoto lenses, which work with special light refraction and mirrors to allow even more optical zoom in the smallest of spaces and to bring you closer to your target subject.

More sensors

The ultra-wide-angle lens is another sensor that is used in many cell phone cameras. In contrast to the telephoto lens, it offers a short focal length , usually less than 20 mm, and can capture large subjects such as landscapes.

Some cell phone cameras have a macro lens to capture small subjects such as insects or details of objects. These sensors are nice features for getting some nice close-ups . Currently, however, the lenses in most camera phones have a low resolution and are more of a gimmick.

A sensor that cannot be used for taking photos, but is built into many cell phones and supports the other lenses, is the depth sensor . It is often a time-of-flight camera (ToF) that measures the distance to objects and thus provides information on the depth of field. This can create a nice bokeh effect.

For the optimal detection of light values ​​in order to be able to deliver even more details, some camera phones have a light-sensitive monochrome sensor . This does not record any color values ​​and can therefore support the other lenses with precise brightness detection and HDR photos. Individual devices such as the Nokia 9 PureView even support native black and white photos . In contrast to sensors with color recognition, the color is not removed from the images afterwards, which ensures stronger and more “natural” results.

The importance of dissolution

In the meantime, the lenses of cell phone cameras and especially the wide-angle sensors offer very high resolutions – sometimes over 100 megapixels! A high resolution means that photos can be much more detailed, as they contain considerably more image information. In retrospect, you can enlarge the images and, for example, only print out a small section of the image in large format without having to accept any noticeable loss of quality.

Find the right resolution

A typical value for cell phone cameras is 12 megapixels . This corresponds to about six times the resolution of a Full HD picture (1080p, approx. 2 MP) and 2.4 times the resolution of QHD (1440p, approx. 5 MP), the typical resolutions of many displays. Even for a 4K or UHD television (2160p, approx. 8 MP), 12 megapixels are easily enough. Professional SLR cameras also work with resolutions in the mid to high double-digit megapixel range. A reasonable resolution is essential for capturing multi-faceted and small-scale motifs as well as for improved digital zooming in during post-processing and display on high-resolution screens.

Current top smartphones usually record videos in 4K (UHD) and these can also be viewed well on the big screen. Some cell phones now even offer 8K resolution (UHD-II) for filming! For this you need a lens with at least 33 megapixels (4320p).

High quality sensors

You should n’t be confused by the high number of megapixels . An extreme value only says something about the quality of the sensor and therefore the photos to a limited extent. In order to get beautiful pictures without strong lens distortion (distortion) or image noise, which convince with vivid colors and precise sharpness, high-quality lenses and a well-processed sensor are essential.

Nowadays, powerful CMOS sensors (active pixel sensors) are built into smartphones , which, despite their small size, create very good photos in a limited housing. The larger the sensor area, the more error-free the images are, as each individual pixel can capture more light. This is why the small, high-resolution sensors use pixel binning, among other things . In poor lighting conditions, several pixels can be combined to form a block in order to achieve greater light sensitivity and avoid interference. So the photos have a lower resolution, but gain in quality.

Reliable information on camera phones

Computer and mobile phone magazines and especially the DXOMARK team provide reliable information about the quality of camera phones and their lenses and sensors. In addition to the detailed information on our website in the Handy Germany blog and in the continuously updated camera phone best list , the DXOMARK website offers a good overview of the best smartphone cameras. There you will find transparent reviews and an easy-to-understand score that is respected across the industry.

Some camera systems offer over 100 megapixels! (Xiaomi Mi Note 10 Pro)

Great shots even in motion and in the dark

Low aperture

A large number of software and hardware features are responsible for the high quality of today’s mobile phone photos. A well-known element from classic photography, which is also very important for cell phone lenses, is a low aperture . The information says something about how much light can enter the sensor, i.e. how bright a lens is and what depth of field is possible.

Maximum f-stops of around ƒ / 2.0 and lower are common with modern smartphones and allow you to take well-exposed images even in the dark, as you can choose a shorter exposure time. The lower the f-number (e.g. ƒ / 1.5), the greater the background blur and bokeh . This allows motifs to stand out from their background, which is perfect for portraits.

Good image stabilization for shake-free recordings

In order to be able to take calm photos and especially videos, you need good image stabilization .

A distinction is made here between electronic ( EIS ) and optical image stabilization ( OIS ). With the help of the software, EIS ensures a more stable image and relies on the acceleration sensor to detect the movement of the mobile phone. This can be very helpful with shaky recordings, but the image quality often suffers, as the EIS can sometimes produce unnatural distortions and the software uses cropping to cut off part of the photo / video as a buffer.

Optical image stabilization (OIS) is the gold standard for obtaining smooth recordings. This is where the hardware comes in: A gyroscope detects the direction in which the smartphone is being moved and adjusts the camera position in the opposite direction – like eyes that fixate on an object even though the head is moving. This proves to be extremely practical in the dark and for telephoto lenses. The OIS is mostly only used with more expensive smartphones and then not with all lenses.

Hybrid image stabilization ( HIS ) is the perfect mix for truly outstanding mobile phone photos . It combines OIS and EIS and can therefore only generate a mechanically stable recording that is subsequently optimized via the software. This is particularly useful for videos, as well as HDR images and long exposures.

There are also smartphone accessories such as tripods and gimbals that you can use to get stable recordings. These are covered in Part III: How to Take Good Cell Phone Photos?  illuminated in more detail.

Precise autofocus

In order to be able to quickly take good photos of moving and difficult-to-see subjects, you need a sensible autofocus. Modern smartphones rely on the so-called PDAF ( Phase Detection Autofocus ) or laser autofocus in order to be able to quickly focus on a subject in all situations. A good autofocus is characterized by the fact that it works reliably even in action and in the dark. With the help of AI-optimized object tracking, you can always have the desired subject in view.

Apple’s cameras are convincing in terms of both features and design. (Apple iPhone 13 Pro)

Bright and natural flash

The classic way to get well-lit photos is known to be through flash . Over the years better and better flash lights with bright LEDs and more precise and adaptive color temperature like the True Tone flash from Apple have been installed. Pictures that are illuminated by a flash are bright and therefore enable sharp pictures with short exposure times even in the dark. However, they have an unnatural look because they brighten a subject in the foreground and swallow the background. This can create a desired aesthetic, but in most cases disrupts the atmosphere of the picture and the people present.

Different modes and other features

Another criterion for a good camera phone is the availability of different modes in which your photos are optimized depending on the situation. In addition to portrait mode, night mode , for example, is particularly useful to brighten up dark areas and still get a sharp picture. Good HDR (High Dynamic Range) recordings are another plus point for taking particularly appealing, multi-faceted photos. They are composed of several (usually three) underexposed and overexposed images, whereby all light and dark areas are adjusted in order to create a harmonious image result.

Panorama mode is ideal for landscapes and large crowds . Here several photos are stitched together from one movement to form one large image. In order to compress recordings over a longer period of time into short videos and give them that certain something, many smartphones have a time-lapse function. This usually requires stable positioning on a tripod.

Exactly the opposite can be achieved with slow-motion recordings, which impressively slow down entertaining moments. Current smartphones achieve astonishing frame rates of 960 fps . The Huawei P40 Pro and Mate 30 Pro even offer an overwhelming 7,680 frames per second (yes, you read that right: seven thousand six hundred and eighty)! This requires extreme computing

power that only such top devices are capable of.

Particularly noteworthy is the Pro mode , in which the elements exposure time, aperture, ISO and focus can be set manually and individually on most smartphones. With the right know-how and a little additional equipment, you can take extremely professional photos.

With the current iPhones, you can also film in Dolby Vision and ProRes and use the cinema mode. This ensures a professional depth of field, which can be changed afterwards in order to focus on the important subjects.

With a ƒ / 1.4 aperture, the device achieves one of the lowest on the market. (Honor 20 Pro)

Good audio and video playback

In order to be able to reproduce your photos and videos in good quality, you need a smartphone with a good display and reasonable speakers . Although the results can be displayed on a larger screen such as a 4K television, the mobile phone should also have suitable video and audio features for everyday life and enjoying memories together.

A good display relies on at least a Full HD resolution (1080p), but displays with Quad HD (1440p) are more suitable for high-resolution material . The size also matters here, because photos and videos can be viewed much better on a 6.5-inch display than on smaller devices. The display technology is also decisive. An OLED display gives a much better picture with stronger colors and more intense black than an LCD. Other features such as HDR10 + and a high frame rate (e.g. 120 Hertz ) can also have a major impact on the quality of the image reproduction.

You can find more information about the different displays and their resolutions in our advice article: What are the differences in the display types and resolutions?

It goes without saying that loudspeakers suitable for videos are important. Some manufacturers save here, but stereo speakers with a powerful sound and fine tuning e.g. B. via Dolby Atmos make a difference. You can also find a lot of information about the audio quality of various cell phones from our colleagues at DXOMARK .

A modern Bluetooth function (5.0 and up), with which you can transfer your sound to external speakers and headphones, is also practical in this regard . A jack socket for connecting a headphone cable is also good, but unfortunately it is no longer installed in many current smartphones. Here you connect your wired headphones / speakers via USB-C or Apple’s Lightning connector.

With a huge AMOLED display including Quad HD + and 120 Hertz, you can really enjoy your own videos. (Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra)

Sufficient performance and storage space

Fast and modern processor

As we have already indicated, modern camera phones require extremely powerful hardware in order to be able to easily enable functions such as 8K videos and super slow motion. For this reason, the latest Android phones, for example, rely on the Qualcomm Snapdragon 888  and Apple on their outstanding A15 chip. Only the flagships are usually equipped with these premium processors, which is why good camera phones often come at a price. The latest chips from MediaTek, Exynos (Samsung), Kirin (Huawei & Honor) and Google’s in-house tensor processor also do a flawless job in processing complex camera software.

Good chips can be recognized by their multiple cores with high clock rates of over 2.5 gigahertz (GHz). For example, a CPU (Central Processing Unit) can process a billion current pulses per second at 1 GHz.

The more gigahertz, the more computing steps a processor can perform per second. The performance in gigahertz accordingly describes the speed of the processor, but does not necessarily say anything about the quality of the chip.

The number of cores is also crucial. Most processors nowadays have multiple cores and are accordingly called hexa- (6) and octa-core (8). The more cores a CPU has, the more tasks it can do simultaneously per second. With multi-core processors, the processing load is evenly distributed across all cores, which leads to better performance . However, here, too, more cores do not necessarily mean more performance. For example, Apple has only been using six cores in A-Chips for years and leads the top list every year.

Sufficient memory

So that the processor can work properly and there is enough buffer for large tasks, a smartphone needs enough working memory (RAM). Current top smartphones often offer eight gigabytes of RAM. The highest configuration of the Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra even offers 16 GB of RAM, which can keep up with many laptops. The amount of RAM is a good indicator of complex computing power . However, some manufacturers such as Apple combine lower values ​​with a sophisticated hardware architecture and thus outbid a large part of the competition. Because of this, memory isn’t critical to the war on some well-built devices.

As much storage space as possible

If you take a lot of photos and videos, you need a correspondingly large amount of space. The simple rule here is: more is more. 64 or 128 gigabytes have now become the standard for higher-priced devices. For most users, this amount of memory is sufficient. If you need more, you should buy a smartphone with at least 256 GB or use a cell phone with expandable memory . Samsung’s Galaxy S and Note series are known to offer a lot of storage space, which can even be expanded using a microSD card. However, Apple has followed suit and offers 1 TB of storage in the largest version of the iPhone 13 Pro .

Alternatively, you can save your recordings in the cloud . There are a large number of providers that you can fall back on. Google Drive or the manufacturer’s own services are ideal for Android users . iPhone owners can rely on the well-integrated iCloud . But other products such as OneDrive from Microsoft or Dropbox are good options for cross-device storage. With all these services you should pay attention to the price-performance ratio of the available storage space, the flexible usage options with different end devices and of course data protection.

Fast connection

Not only the performance of the processor and the amount of memory available play a role, but also the connectivity of your smartphone. If you want to own a modern camera phone, you should pay attention to the current connection standards. For one thing, your device needs to have a good WiFi connection. Therefore, your cell phone should support at least WiFi 5 (802.11ac) or even better WiFi 6 and 6e (802.11ax) in order to be well equipped at home and at work. On the other hand, access to the 5G network is crucial. In order to be able to share and receive large amounts of data such as pictures and videos on the go, you need fast internet access. This is guaranteed to you with a 5G connection.

You can find more information about 5G here: 5G – the most important questions and facts

Processor power is beyond question with the groundbreaking Snapdragon 888.

There are many aspects that you can look out for when choosing a good smartphone camera: from the various lenses to high-resolution sensors and various photo

functions to performance. You have now gained a good overview of which of these properties are decisive for a good camera phone.

In addition, some features and options were presented that require a certain amount of know-how in order to be able to use them properly. How to use all of this information correctly in order to take great photos is shown in Part III: How do you take good mobile phone photos? shown. In Part IV: Organize, Edit, and Share Photos, you’ll find out how to properly manage your recordings

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Technology

How to send messages to 250 people at once on WhatsApp

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WhatsApp broadcast message

The popular messaging app WhatsApp is giving the opportunity to send greeting messages to many friends together on special days. From now on, a message can be sent to a maximum of 256 people through WhatsApp. For this the user does not have to create any group.

There is a preparation phase for this  feature. This is called ‘Broadcast List‘. To do this, log in to WhatsApp and touch the three dots on the top right of the chat screen. There you have to choose the ‘New Broadcast’ option from the drop down.

Once there, it will show the list of numbers saved in the mobile. From here the user can choose the contact number of his choice. Here 256 numbers can be chosen together.

If the number is selected, an arrow will appear. Broadcast group can be created by pressing there. This time, if you send a message, it will go to everyone.

Even if you send a message to everyone at once, the recipients will not be able to understand it. It will appear that the message has been sent to everyone personally.

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Technology

How to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android

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How to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android

Hello guys, today I will teach you How to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android, If we want to share photos with other people and we do not want to promote them freely on the Internet , all we can do is convert them to PDF format I will teach you, Although images can be easily extracted from such files, with the right tools, we will never be able to retrieve them in the original resolution.

In addition, the metadata is also deleted , allowing the information to be located along with the data where the capture was taken, which allows to know the values ​​of the image. If you want to know how to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android , I invite you to continue reading

 How to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android

This PDF format created by Adobe allows us to store any type of content, documents, photos and even videos, and over the years it has become a standard in the industry, so there is no need to use Adobe tools to create or read this format.

Advantages of PDF files

PDF

Allows sharing multiple pictures at once

One of the advantages of sharing images in PDF format is that it allows us to group multiple images into a single file , which reduces the time required to send a document via email with a messaging platform.

Remove metadata

In the age we live in, many people take pictures that are not dedicated to you so that they can be shared .

If you want to avoid this problem, this is exactly the process of solving it from Adobe’s hands .

This way, we will not only perform our images freely past our images in our original resolution , but in addition, we will automatically delete all metadata from the image.

Decrease image size

Another reason to share images in PDF format is that it allows us to reduce the space they occupy when sharing , a better way to save our data rates and makes it faster to share them.

Reading: Truecaller Version 12 to add more features for Android users: Find out what’s new on the updated app

How to convert a photo to a PDF on Android

PDF picture

PDF to PDF – Photo to PDF

Convert multiple images to a PDF file has never been easier with the PDF Converter app , an app that we can download for free, with ads and in-app purchases to unlock all the features.

Jpg to pdf converter

JPG to PDF Converter allows us to convert a large number of image formats to PDF format with a single click and without the need for internet connection like most such applications.

The image format that we can convert to PDF is NG, JPEG, XPS, TIFF, JFIF and GIF . But, in addition, it allows us to convert our documents to this Adobe format, making it one of the most complete applications for converting images and files to PDF format.

JPG to PDF Converter is available for you to download for free, including ads and in-app purchases.

Jpg to pdf converter

With a slightly older interface than previous applications, but completely free with convenience , without in-app purchases, but with ads , we find PDF to JPG Converter.

Only this application allows us to convert images to PDF in JPG format . If we consider that all smartphones store images in JPG format, then it would not be a problem to regularly accept this application to convert our photographs to PDF format.

Jpg to pdf converter
Price: Free

How to convert photos to PDF on iOS and Android

PDF picture

Convert image to PDF

Converting images to PDF is an application designed for the iPad, completely free, which allows us to convert photos directly from the camera or photo library to PDF format, add text, rearrange images, and a large number of predefined designs.

Convert image to PDF
Price: Free

Image converter

This application allows us to convert any type of image to .jpg, .png, .svg, .psd … PDF format . The conversion is done in the cloud so that it is faster and the battery consumption in our iPhone or iPad is less.

Download the image converter available to you for free and include a subscription to get the most out of it. Requires iOS 12 or higher.

Document converter

From the same developer as the previous application, we found the Document Converter application, an application that allows us to convert images to .jpg format, but also allows us to convert our files to .docx, .txt, .html format.

Download the app available to you for free , and include a subscription to get the most out of it. Requires iOS 12 or higher.

Document Converter
Price: Free +

Website to convert photos to PDF

Gnapdf

GenePDF

The best web page for creating a PDF file with a single image we find it in the free tool ginapdf . This web page allows us to convert various photographs to PDF format, so that each image is a sheet of document.

Select the activity of this website as a file and click on the option Select all the files that we want to include in a document of this format.

Automatically, the process of creating a PDF file will begin and all we have to do is click the download button to save it to our device.

OCR2 edit

Another great tool we have is to convert images into PDF files for free. We found it OCR2 edit .

This website not only allows us to upload images stored on our device, but also allows us to select from them. Dropbox or Google Drive.

However, also, if those options were less, it would allow us to enter the URL where  we want to attach the image to a document in PDF format.

It also allows us to select which version of the PDF we want to convert the document (1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 or 2.) This is especially effective when the tools to access the document are outdated and / or have limited resources.

Online 2 pdf

Online 2 pdf Another tool we find on the internet is completely free which allows us to convert a jpg image to pdf format.

This is the one that offers us the most options, as it allows us to specify the number of images per sheet, the size of the page, if we want to establish a margin and orientation of the photographs.

 

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Phones

How to use telegram without phone number

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Use Telegram without phone number

Since its launch in 2014, Telegram has become virtually the best alternative to WhatsApp, especially for users who spend a lot of time in front of a computer and who need to share files, since the platform is available for Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Use Telegram without phone number

But, in addition, it does not need that our Phone is turned ON or that we have the right, as happens with WhatsApp Application. Also, unlike WhatsApp applications, you do not need a phone number to use the telegram. If you are ready to know how to use Telegram without phone number, please continue reading.

How the telegram works

Telegram

WhatsApp is all end-to-end, end-to-end messages, so encrypted is not stored on any server and it cannot be used independently on other devices as we can do with Telegram.

Encrypts messages between Telegram Server and the application, not between applications like WhatsApp, so all messages are stored on Telegram Server encrypted and we can access them from any other application using data from the same account.

Telegram, via secret chat, uses the same method as WhatsApp encrypting end-to-end, device-to-device, without saving to the server and so we cannot continue those conversations from other devices from any other telegram application.

Use telegram without Phone number

SIM card

While it is true that you do not need to have a phone number to use Telegram, it is important to remember that you must register if necessary. If we do not have a phone number, we will not be able to register for the application.

When the application started its journey, if we could register without using a phone number, but from Telegram Application, they were required a telephone number to prevent opening a spam account.

Once we register for the application, we do use Telegram without phone number, so we can use a prepaid number and forget it forever, the phone number is registered, it is associated with a nickname on the telegram application.

Once we have opened a Telegram account with a phone number, we will need to create a nickname. This nickname will be our I’d on the telegram platform, that is, it will be the name by which any other user can find us on the telegram.

Locally, the application does not allow other users to search us with our phone number, so Telegram is an ideal platform to meet new people and if we have any problems with them, block them directly so that they never contact us again. Maybe, since they don’t have our phone number.

Also Read: How to Download GTA Vice City new trailer for Android and iPad

How to create a telegram account

Register at Telegram

As I commented in the previous section, the first thing we need is to have a phone number in hand, a phone number where we can get the confirmation code of the platform and register, we must enter the application.

We do not need to install the Telegram application on our mobile where we get the confirmation message, but if it needs to be in hand, since, without that code, we will never be able to register in this messaging application.

To create an account in Telegram follow the steps below.

  • Goto plays store and install the application to your phone or search for the telegram App on Google and install it to the computer or any where we are going to use it, here is the telegram for web
  • Then the telegram App invites us to enter your country and your phone number.
  • Then, an SMS will be sent with the verification code on our phone which we must enter into the application.

If we want to use it on another computer, once we have created an account, we will not need a mobile phone with the corresponding phone number.

Create a nickname in the telegram

Create a nickname in the telegram

Once we have opened our Telegram account, we need to do is generate a nickname as an identifier, it will be the name by which other users will be able to identify us on the platform.

We can also set our real names, which will be used to introduce ourselves in the chat, although through this, no one will find them on our platform. Once we have created the alias, we can start using the application.

Recommended: Smartphone Explosion: Why Would Your Smartphone Explode And How To Prevent It

Create multiple nicknames in Telegram

Telegram allows us to manage up to 3 accounts, all with different phone numbers and different nicknames. It allows us to use different nicknames depending on who we want to establish a relationship with and wants to permanently cancel or change at a given moment.

That way, when it comes to our family, we can use our established nickname, and if it’s about a group of people we don’t know personally, if we start to suffer any kind of harassment or if we want to forget this secondary account completely, close the account. For we can use a different.

Don’t have a phone number to register with Telegram?

This is a way to use Telegram without phone number, since you can use any one of the various applications available in both the Play Store and App Store that allow us to use virtual numbers for free for a limited time.

And I’m saying for a limited time, as we have explained, you only need to use a phone number once real, the number where the platform confirmation message is received. From that moment on, we will no longer need a smartphone or a virtual number to receive telegram SMS.

Install Telegram on other devices

Telegram verification code

Once registered, to log in to our Telegram account, we must enter the phone number (shown in the Telegram configuration section) in the Telegram application associated with that account, to receive a confirmation message.

This message is received in the Telegram application that we have already installed on another device, not via SMS to the corresponding phone number, so it does not need to be virtual or prepaid.

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